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6 Legal Systems in the World

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Ilmu Hukum

6 Legal Systems in the World

6 Legal Systems in the World
Renata Christha Auli, S.H.Si Pokrol
Si Pokrol
Bacaan 10 Menit
6 Legal Systems in the World

PERTANYAAN

What is a legal system? And how many legal systems are there in the world?

DAFTAR ISI

    INTISARI JAWABAN

    The legal system is the unity of all regulations, institutions, and practices in a particular country. Theoretically, legal systems are open and can influence each other.

    In its development, there are at least six major legal systems in the world. What are they?

    Please read the review below for a further explanation.

    ULASAN LENGKAP

    This article is an English translation of 6 Sistem Hukum yang Berlaku di Dunia, written by Renata Christha Auli, S.H. and was published on Wednesday, 20 September 2023.

    This article is an update of the article entitled These are 6 Legal Systems in the World, which was first published on Monday, 29 August 2022.

    All legal information available on Klinik hukumonline.com has been prepared for educational purposes only and is general in nature (read the complete Disclaimer). In order to obtain legal advice specific to your case, please consult with Justika Partner Consultant.

    In simple terms, the legal system is the unity of all regulations, institutions, and practices in a particular country.[1]

    This is in accordance with the opinion of J.H. Merryman who states that the legal system is an operational instrument that includes institutions, procedures, and legal rules.[2]

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    The legal system aims to ensure that legal objectives run systematically. The purpose of law according to C.S.T. Kansil in his Pengantar Ilmu Hukum dan Tata Hukum Indonesia is to ensure the continuity of balance in the relationship between members of society, the rule of law is needed, where every lawbreaker will be subject to punitive sanctions (p. 40).

    It should be noted that there are a number of reasons that affect the legal system, including:[3]

    1. historical background and development of the system;
    2. its characteristics or typical mode of thought;
    3. its distinctive institutions;
    4. the types of legal sources it acknowledges and its treatment of these;
    5. its ideology.

    Furthermore, the legal system is also a product of history resulting from long struggles in society. In this regard, the legal system is strongly influenced by the type of society. This happens because it is the society that finds law in practice, and the practice of law itself is a reflection of how society forms its social identity. That is the reason why law cannot be separated from the identity of society.[4]

    Legal Systems in the World

    The legal system is open and can be influenced and affect other systems outside the law. Therefore, in legal systems, there are similarities and differences.[5] The following are some of the legal systems in the world that are often referred to as "the world's major legal systems"[6] among others:

    1. Continental European (Civil Law System)

    This legal system adopted by Continental European countries is rooted and sourced from Roman law, which is called civil law. The use of civil law terminology is because Roman law comes from the work of King Justinianus, namely Corpus Juris Civilis.[7]

    Corpus Juris Civilis is a compilation of legal rules made at the direction of King Justinianus, containing a codification of laws derived from the decisions of previous kings, with additional modifications tailored to the social and economic conditions of that era.[8]

    The characteristic of the Continental European legal system is that it prioritizes rechtsstaat or a state of law that has an administrative character and considers the law to be written. This means that the truth of law and justice lies in the written provisions. The civil law legal system is used in several countries, such as France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Latin America, Turkey, several Arab countries, North Africa and Madagascar.[9]

    1. Anglo Saxon (Common Law System)

    The Anglo Saxon legal system is a legal system that developed in the 16th century in England. In the Anglo Saxon system, there is no standardized and written source of law as known in the civil law system.

    According to the common law system, the highest source of law is the custom of the community developed in court or has become a court decision. The source of law derived from this custom is what then makes this legal system called the common law system or unwritten law.[10]

    The most specific difference between the common law system and the civil law system lies in the source of positive law, namely in the common law system the main source is the judge's decision or judge-made law. Whereas in the civil law system, the source of law is legislation.[11]

    Some countries that adhere to the common law or Anglo Saxon legal system are England, India, Afghanistan, Australia, Canada, Fiji, and others.[12]

    1. Islamic Legal System

    One of the strongest characteristics of the Islamic legal system that distinguishes it from the Continental European and Anglo Saxon systems is the legal basis for its implementation which is based on the holy book of Islam and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad's sunnah in the form of the Qur'an and al-Hadith.

    Based on the sunnah, Islamic law is a static law and it is impossible to make amendments as in the Continental European and Anglo Saxon systems. However, changes in Islamic law can be made by methods of interpretation based on scholarship in the Islamic legal tradition, such as through fiqh, ushul fiqh, ulumul hadith through the method of ijtihad that has been determined by scholars and jurists.[13]

    1. Socialist Legal System

    Socialist legal system is a legal system based on communist ideology. This system is more socialist-oriented, which lays the foundation on the ideology of the communist state with a spirit of minimizing private rights.

    In addition, the state also regulates and distributes the rights and obligations of its citizens. Thus, in this legal system, personal interests are merged into common interests.

    Some countries that apply the Socialist Legal System are Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Cuba, and the former colonies of the Soviet Union.[14]

    1. Sub-Saharan Law (African Law System)

    The African law system is a community-oriented legal system, in other words, all matters relating to the social solidarity of a community become mutually agreed upon rules of law to be implemented, adhered to and obeyed together.

    In the sub-saharan legal system, all citizens are bound by the rules of their community. In countries that follow this system, customary rules have a very strong position and almost all legal content is a codification of customary rules.[15]

    1. Far East Law System

    The main characteristic of the far east law system is that it emphasizes harmony and social order. This means that the system always seeks to strengthen harmony and social order, and dislikes the presence of open conflict. This is because open conflict tends to encourage the birth of disintegration and break down social order.

    As a result, in this legal system, people avoid the legal litigation process and prefer to resolve conflicts through non-legal methods.[16] The Far East Asian legal system is practiced in Japan, Malta, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, and others.[17]

    Based on the previous explanation, it can be concluded that there are at least 6 systems that apply in the world, namely Continental Europe, Anglo Saxon, Islamic law, Socialist law, Sub-Saharan law, and Far East Asian law.

    These are the answers we can provide, we hope you will find them useful.

    Reference:

    1. Agus Riwanto. Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum. Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016;
    2. C.S.T. Kansil. Pengantar Ilmu Hukum dan Tata Hukum Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1986;
    3. Erick Christian Fabrian Siagian (et.al). Sejarah Sistem Hukum Eropa Kontinental (Civil Law) dan Implementasinya di Indonesia. Jurnal Lex Specialis, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2021;
    4. Farihan Aulia (et.al). Perbandingan Sistem Hukum Common Law, Civil Law, dan Islamic Law dalam Perspektif Sejarah dan Karakteristik Berpikir. Jurnal Legality, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2017;
    5. Nurul Qamar. Perbandingan Sistem Hukum dan Peradilan. Makassar: Refleksi, 2010.

    [1] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 71.

    [2] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 71.

    [3] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 84.

    [4] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 84.

    [5] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 72.

    [6] Nurul Qamar, Perbandingan Sistem Hukum dan Peradilan, Makassar: Refleksi, 2010, p. 16.

    [7] Erick Christian Fabrian Siagian (et.al). Sejarah Sistem Hukum Eropa Kontinental (Civil Law) dan Implementasinya di Indonesia. Jurnal Lex Specialis, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2021, p. 45.

    [8] Erick Christian Fabrian Siagian (et.al). Sejarah Sistem Hukum Eropa Kontinental (Civil Law) dan Implementasinya di Indonesia. Jurnal Lex Specialis, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2021, p. 46.

    [9] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 74.

    [10] Farihan Aulia (et.al). Perbandingan Sistem Hukum Common Law, Civil Law, dan Islamic Law dalam Perspektif Sejarah dan Karakteristik Berpikir. Jurnal Legality, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2017, p. 103.

    [11] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 77.

    [12] Nurul Qamar. Perbandingan Sistem Hukum dan Peradilan. Makassar: Refleksi, 2010, pp. 21-22.

    [13] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 79.

    [14] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 80.

    [15] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 81.

    [16] Agus Riwanto, Sejarah Hukum: Konsep, Teori, dan Metodenya dalam Pengembangan Ilmu Hukum, Karanganyar: Oase Pustaka, 2016, p. 82.

    [17] Nurul Qamar. Perbandingan Sistem Hukum dan Peradilan. Makassar: Refleksi, 2010, p. 23.

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